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Monday, October 16, 2017

The eyes have it: how technology allows you to speak when all you can do is blink

Closeup of an eye

Developments in eye-gaze technology – which converts minute movements of the eye into spoken words – are opening up undreamed of opportunities for people with motor neurone disease


Steve Thomas and I are talking about brain implants. Bonnie Tyler’s Holding Out For a Hero is playing in the background and for a moment I almost forget that a disease has robbed Steve of his speech. The conversation breaks briefly; now I see his wheelchair, his ventilator, his hospital bed.
Steve, a software engineer, was diagnosed with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a type of motor neurone disease) aged 50. He knew it was progressive and incurable; that he would soon become unable to move and, in his case, speak. He is using eye-gaze technology to tell me this (and later to turn off the sound of Bonnie Tyler); cameras pick up light reflection from his eye as he scans a screen. Movements of his pupils are translated into movements of a cursor through infrared technology and the cursor chooses letters or symbols. A speech-generating device transforms these written words into spoken ones – and, in turn, sentences and stories form.
Eye-gaze devices allow some people with limited speech or hand movements to communicate, use environmental controls, compose music, and paint. That includes patients with ALS – up to 80% have communication difficulties. Other conditions that can benefit from these devices include cerebral palsy, strokes, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuries. It’s a far cry from Elle editor-in-chief Jean-Dominique Bauby, locked-in by a stroke in 1995, painstakingly blinking through letters on an alphabet board. His memoir, written at one word every two minutes, later became a film, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly. Although some still use low-tech options (not everyone can meet the physical or cognitive requirements for eye-gaze systems; occasionally, locked-in patients can blink but cannot move their eyes), speech-to-text and text-to-speech functionality on smartphones and tablets has revolutionised communication.

 A person using an eye-gaze device. Photograph: mndassociation.org
Eye-gaze technology has also evolved rapidly with open source and lower-cost options, solid NHS funding, and improved accessibility – some users are as young as 13 months. Recent prototypes have implanted similar technology into smartphones and glasses. But in practice, even some newer systems allow for only eight words per minute. Technical hitches during my visit mean that Steve reaches 3 wpm at times – our average speech rate in free-flowing conversation is 190 wpm. “Eye gaze allows me to do anything from Skype my wife to playing games,” he says, “but the downside is that sometimes I can’t really join in with conversa
Yet Steve still sounds like Steve. He preserved his speech before it disappeared through voice banking, recording around 1,500 phrases. Now his communication device generates an infinite number of sentences from those sounds, his identity in some way preserved. Prices start at around £100 for voice-banking services; some charities offer equipment loans and financial support.
In the Netherlands, Peter Desain, chair of artificial intelligence at Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, is researching brain computer interfaces (BCI), a technique where brain signals are analysed and used to control external devices. BCI recently enabled three paralysed patientselsewhere to type with their thoughts through brain implants. That system, still in early development, is slow (2-8 wpm), expensive, and can take months to learn.
But Desain’s NoiseTag method, developed at Radboud University Nijmegen, does not require surgery. Instead, users wear a headset fitted with electrodes that record brain activity. They look at a screen with a matrix of flashing characters, each tagged with a specific code. Focusing on a given character causes its signature to appear in brainwaves recorded by the headset; the corresponding character is typed, and then a device “speaks” a completed sentence. The system exploits machine learning and predicts a user’s response for each pattern; this means that limited, if any, calibration is needed – one letter can be typed every one or two seconds with 95% accuracy. Twenty patients with ALS are trialling the technology, with a spin-off aiming to scale up numbers over the next year and extend the method to the internet of things (IoT).
Recently, Facebook has announced it is stepping into the BCI ring, ready to decode neural activity within two years using a yet-to-be-developed non-invasive technique at the mysterious Building 8 in Menlo Park, California. Mark Zuckerberg believes we will soon be typing using only our thoughts at five times the speed currently managed on smartphones. In addition, Elon Musk has just founded the $100m company NeuraLink and says we will all be benefiting from its BCI technology within a decade. Others express healthy scepticism; bandwidth and biocompatibility remain significant challenges, let alone surgical risks and our still-evolving understanding of neuroscientific princip

In the US, Darpa (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) has also invested $65m in neural implants to restore speech, hearing, vision and memory in those with brain trauma and neurodegenerative disease. One group is working to wirelessly record signals from up to 1m neurons at once (currently, BCI reads around 100 neurons) by implanting tens of thousands of microdevices called neurograins across the brain. This “cortical intranet” will read out and write in information – brain enhancement might follow. Neuroprostheses have already shown promise in improving memory in rats and decision-making in monkeys; humans are another matter, of course. Perhaps that is why Kernel, a $100m start-up that aims to build “the world’s first neuroprosthesis to enhance human intelligence”, has quickly shifted focus. Founder Bryan Johnson says invasive BCI “is really interesting, but not an entry point” into a commercially viable business.
Meanwhile, Facebook has sought to dampen concerns around privacy and brain hacking: “This isn’t about decoding random thoughts. This is about decoding the words you’ve already decided to share by sending them to the speech centre of your brain. Think of it like this: you take many photos and choose to share only some of them. Similarly, you have many thoughts and choose to share only some of them.” Of course, photos not meant for sharing don’t always stay unshared …
“I already have a [prototype] BCI,” Steve tells. “My death wish is when I don’t even respond with BCI.” His words bring to mind something written by Bauby, mourning the loss of true conversation: “Sweet Florence refuses to speak to me unless I first breathe noisily into the receiver that Sandrine holds glued to my ear. ‘Are you there, Jean-Do?’ she asks anxiously over the air. And I have to admit that at times I do not know any more.”
For many like Steve, communication technology is not about sophisticated brain enhancement; it is simply about existence.

27 comments:

  1. I am Karen from Canada, I once suffered from a terrible and Chronic ALS,for more than 23 years , the doctor told me there was no permanent cure i was given medications to slow down its progress, i constantly felt my health was deteriorating as i constantly had muscle weakness and difficulty speaking ,this ailment was really terrible especially when am going out with my friends, i have this constant disorder for about 23 years, this was really a terrible ailment ,on thin one day that i was going through the internet,and i came across a post of Mrs kate on how her husband was been cured from als through the help of Dr Williams herbal product, I contacted this herbal doctor via his email and explain everything to him and make purchase of his product,few days later he sent me the herbal medicine through courier service, when i received the herbal medicine, i used it as prescribed by dr williams and i was totally cured within those week of usage,on thin now i have not experience any sign or characteristics again . for more information you can email him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for help

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    My husband was diagnosed of ALS in 2013 and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, he always have trouble swallowing , and he always complain of Weakness of the body . we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the cure to ALS. I never imagined ALS has a natural cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my husband will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my husband used it and in one months he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. ALS has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098675@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my testimony.

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  4. As a sign of gratitude for how my husband was saved from ALS, i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
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  8. As a sign of gratitude for how my husband was saved from ALS, i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My husband was diagnosed of ALS in 2013 and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, he always have trouble swallowing , and he always complain of Weakness of the body . we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the cure to ALS. I never imagined ALS has a natural cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my husband will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my husband used it and in one months he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. ALS has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098675@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my testimony.

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  11. As a sign of gratitude for how my husband was saved from ALS, i decided to reach out to those still suffering from this.
    My husband was diagnosed of ALS in 2013 and it was really tough and heartbreaking for me because he was my all and the symptoms were terrible, he always have trouble swallowing , and he always complain of Weakness of the body . we tried various therapies prescribed by our neurologist but none could cure him. I searched for a cure and i saw a testimony by someone who was cured and so many other with similar body problem, and he left the contact of the doctor who had the cure to ALS. I never imagined ALS has a natural cure not until i contacted him and he assured me my husband will be fine. I got the herbal medication he recommended and my husband used it and in one months he was fully okay even up till this moment he is so full of life. ALS has a cure and it is a herbal cure contact the doctor for more info on drwilliams098675@gmail.com on how to get the medication. Thanks for reading my testimony.

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  12. I am Sophie from Canada, I once suffered from a terrible and chronic als ,since 30years now , the doctor told me there was no permanent cure i was given medications to slow down its progress, i constantly felt my health was deteriorating as i constantly go out of breath,and this illness was really terrible especially when am going out with my friends, i have this constant disorder for about 30 years, this was really a terrible illness ,on thin one day that i was going through the internet,and i came across a post of Mrs kate on how his husband was been cured from als through the help of Dr Williams herbal product, I contacted this herbal doctor via his email and explain everything to him and make purchase of his product,few days later he sent me the herbal medicine through courier service, when i received the herbal medicine, i used it for 1 months as prescribed by Dr Williams and i was totally cured within those week of usage,on thin now i have not experience any sign or characteristics again . for more information you can email him on drwilliams098675@gmail.com for help

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  19. It was during my research on HIV/Herpes that I stumbled upon the Hiv/Herpes information; information which is quite easy to find when doing a search for STD on google. I was into conspiracy at the time thought of HIV/Herpes Cured' being a conspiracy was something Ignorance though,I found pretty interesting about herbal medicine. I asked questions about the Herbal cure's on official HIV/Herpes websites and I was banned for doing so by moderators who told me that I was parroting Hiv/Herpes propaganda. This reinforced my belief that there is a cure for Hiv/Herpes Then i found a lady from germany name Achima Abelard Dr Itua Cure her Hiv so I send him a mail about my situation then talk more about it and send me his herbal medicine I drank for two weeks.And today I'm Cured no Hiv/Herpes in my life,I searched for Hiv/Herpes groups to attempt to make contact with people in order to learn more about Hiv/Herpes Herbal Cure's I believed at this time that you with the same disease this information is helpful to you and I wanted to do the best I could to spread this information in the hopes of helping other people.That Dr Itua cure Hiv,Herpes,Hepatitis,Diabetes,Copd,Fibroid,Als, And Cancer. He's a herbal doctor with a unique heart of God, Contact Emal..drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Phone or whatsapp..+2348149277967.

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  20. You really touched few considerable points of concern here, and I'd like to appreciate you for that. The way you decipher your thoughts into words making it easy for the readers to absorb is admirable. Continue writing and keep us updated with latest technologies.
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  21. I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it. I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world has crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could leave a normal life if I took my medications (as there was no medically known cure to Herpes). I went from churches to churches but soon found that my case needed urgent attention as I was growing lean due to fear of dying anytime soon. In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the herbal world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, cos I heard that the African Herbs had a cure to the Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr Itua(A powerful African Herbal Doctor), who offered to help me at a monetary fee. I had to comply as this was my final bus-stop to receiving a perfect healing. My last resolve was to take my life by myself, should this plan fail. At last it worked out well. He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Last month, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that negative,Dr Itua Can As Well Cure The Following Desease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetis,Fribroid, Dercum,fibromyalgia,Get Your Ex Back,Als,SYPHILLIS. You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Herbal Doctor via this e-mail: drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2348149277967 He will help you and his herb medication is sure. he has the cure on all disease .You can talk to me on INSTAGRAM..tashamoore219.... 

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